On Earth as It Is in Heaven: A Biblical Theology of Worship

worship

Worship at the Dawn of Time

Since the beginning of time, there has been worship—in heaven and on earth. In heaven above, seraphim flew before God in the heavens, singing, “Holy, holy, holy is the Lord God of hosts; the whole earth is full of his glory!” (Isa. 6:3); angelic creatures flew before him, calling to one another, “Holy, holy, holy, is the Lord God Almighty, who was and is and is to come!” (Rev. 4:8). On earth below, the sun, moon and stars sounded forth his praise across every land and sea under the heavens: “Praise him, sun and moon, praise him, all you shining stars” (Ps. 148:3).

Worship in Eden

In the beginning, God also called Adam to covenant worship on Mount Eden (cf. Ezek. 28:14) through his word and sacrament: “And the Lord God commanded the man, saying, ‘You may surely eat of every tree of the garden, but of the tree of the knowledge of good and evil you shall not eat, for in the day that you eat of it you shall surely die’” (Gen. 2:16–17). Adam was commanded to fast from one tree in order that he might feast at another tree, and thus enjoy consummate union and communion with God—everlasting life. And so for Adam and all his descendants, a liturgy was fixed, stitched into the very order and fabric of human life on earth: call—response—meal:

Call to worship (through God’s Word and sacrament)
Response (by faith and obedience)
Fellowship meal (union and communion with God)

In short, God established worship on Mount Eden with his son, Adam. It was familial, covenantal worship of God through word and sacrament—the word of the covenant of life and the sacrament of the tree of life.

Idolatry in Eden

But Adam’s worship soon turned to idolatry when he abandoned the call of God and followed the call of the serpent. He abandoned his probationary fast, disobeyed the voice of his God, and bowed down to the serpent. He exchanged the worship of the Creator for the worship of the creature. Since Adam was the covenant head of humanity, he introduced the liturgy of idolatry into the fabric of human life.

Worship Through Sacrifice

Yet God is too great and good and glorious to forego the right, fitting and delightful adoration that is due him from his creatures. God worked to restore the worship of himself by making a new covenant with man—the covenant of grace.

In Genesis 3:15, the promise of a son who would come and crush the serpent was, by implication, a promise to restore—and perfect—the worship of God. This covenant of grace became the context in which God would restore worship. Integral to that restored worship was the idea of sacrifice—seen in the animal skins that God provided for Adam and Eve (Gen. 3:20).

As redemptive history unfolds, sacrifices play an important part in the lives of the chosen seed. Noah, Abraham, Isaac and Jacob respond to God’s call in faith and obedience; they offer sacrifices to God. Sacrifice also becomes central to the life of Israel, God’s national (typical) son. The purpose of the exodus is described in terms of worship by sacrifice at Mount Sinai (Exod. 3:12, 18; 4:23; 5:2; 10:7–11).

Worship by sacrifice in the Holy of Holies reaches its climax under King Solomon, God’s royal (typical) son. In his “dedication service” for the temple on Mount Zion, Solomon offers so many sheep and oxen that they could not even be numbered (2 Chron. 5:6). In the covenant of grace, worship by sacrifice in God’s presence becomes the new norm.

Worship at Eden, Sinai and Zion

The Old Testament story presents three “mountain peaks” of worship in which God’s son is called to worship: Adam on Mount Eden, Israel at Mount Sinai, and Solomon on Mount Zion. In each worship setting, the liturgical order is organically developed. For example, as Israel gathers at Mount Sinai, after being redeemed and rescued out of slavery in Egypt, a liturgy is formed that becomes the basic pattern for Israel’s worship in the future.

Gathering (at Mount Sinai) (19:1–3a)
Calling (by God’s word) (19:3b–9)
Cleansing (through sacrifice) (19:10–15)
Mediated access (through an appointed prophet-priest) (19:16–25)
Divine communication (Ten Commandments and Book of Covenant) (20:1–24:2)
Consecration (promise of obedience) (24:3)
Sacrifice (burnt offerings and peace offerings) (24:4–5)
Divine communication (Book of Covenant) (24:7)
Cleansing (blood of burnt offerings and peace offerings sprinkled) (24:6, 8)
Mediated access to God’s presence (24:9–10)
Fellowship meal (with God) (24:11)

A similar pattern to Exodus 19–24 is seen in 2 Chronicles 5–7, as Solomon gathers Israel for the dedication of the temple. Again, the key elements of sacrifice and prophetic-priestly intercession are present:

Gathering (at Mount Zion) (5:2–3)
Cleansing (through sacrifice) (5:4–6)
Mediated access (through priests) (5:7–10)
Praise (with singing and music) (5:11–13)
Glory of God fills the temple (5:14)
Divine communication (Word of God through Solomon) (6:1–11)
Prayer of intercession (by Solomon) 6:12–42)
Fire and glory (from heaven) (7:1–2)
Praise (bowing and thanking) (7:3)
Cleansing/consecration (through sacrifice) (7:4–7)
Meal (feast) (7:8–10)
Blessing and dismissal (7:9–10)

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Jonathan Gibson
Jonathan Gibson (PhD, Cambridge University) is an assistant professor of Old Testament at Westminster Theological Seminary.

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